Chloroquine is now uncommonly used in favor of its derivative hydroxychloroquine. In the United States, hydroxychloroquine is most often used for its anti-inflammatory effects in rheumatology and dermatology. Sickle cell disease guidelines hydroxychloroquine Chloroquine apoptosis Plaquenil eye floaters Cdc chloroquine dosing Fundus autofluorescence FAF is a non-invasive retinal imaging modality used in clinical practice to provide a density map of lipofuscin, the predominant ocular fluorophore, in the retinal pigment epithelium. To investigate the impact of retinal toxicity from hydroxychloroquine HCQ on fundus autofluorescence lifetimes using fluorescence lifetime imaging ophthalmoscopy FLIO. Design Cross-sectional study. Novel technologies such as optical coherence tomography OCT, fundus autofluorescence FAF and multifocal electroretinogram mfERG may provide the earliest structural and functional evidence of toxicity in these stages. Along with the well-established technique of central visual field testing 10-2 visual fields, these modalities are. While early toxicity may be asymtomatic, patients with more advanced stage of toxicity may complain of color vision changes or paracentral scotomas. Its toxic effects on the retina are seen in the macula. Fundus autofluorescence in hydroxychloroquine toxicity Unusual Fundus Autofluorescence Appearance in a Patient., Imaging of Hydroxychloroquine Toxicity with Fluorescence. Plaquenil and lasikImmunosuppressant plaquenilPregnant plaquenil low platelts Fundus Autofluorescence Is Not the Best Early Screen for Hydroxychloroquine Toxicity—Reply Ian R. Gorovoy, MD; Mark S. Gorovoy, MD Fundus autofluorescence images of the left eye of a 59-year-old women with sarcoidosis who received 200 mg of hydroxychloroquine sulfate twice daily for 15 years. Fundus Autofluorescence in Hydroxychloroquine Toxicity.. Hydroxychloroquine-related retinal toxicity Rheumatology.. Hydroxychloroquine Retinal Toxicity Early Signs. Fundus Autofluorescence FAF Early hydroxychloroquine toxicity can also be detected on autofluorescence as an increased ring of signal within the parafoveal and extramacular regions, which is indicative of photoreceptor dysfunction and RPE dysfunction. This is especially true in moderate and later stages of hydroxychloroquine maculopathy. 16 Researchers speculate as to the sensitivity of FAF in early stages of hydroxychloroquine toxicity for some patients, especially compared with spectral domain OCT and mfERG, and it is always important to check for toxic hydroxychloroquine dosing during your screening. 7 Currently, one of the primary functional screening tests recommended for the evaluation of Plaquenil retinal toxicity is 10-2 white stimulus automated visual fields; however, research shows Asian patients benefited from 24-2 or 30-2 visual fields, given that toxicity often manifests changes beyond the macula in these patients. 9 Because spectral-domain optical coherence tomography SD-OCT is readily accessible and able to detect early structural damage prior to clinical funduscopic findings.